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Study Overview

Impact of Training Poor Rural Households in Home Gardening and Nutrition in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda
Study is 3ie funded:
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This study evaluates the combined impact of training women in home gardening and nutrition and supplying high-quality seeds of six nutrient-dense vegetables on the nutritional outcomes of poor rural households in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The study is conducted in the context of the project "Deploying vegetable seed kits to tackle malnutrition in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda" funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The project period is from October 2014 to September 2017. A randomized controlled trial design is applied. Data are collected from a random sample of 500 control and treatment households per country before the intervention and again two years after the intervention and analyzed using a difference-in-difference estimator. Overall, the project aims to reach 25,000 poor rural households.
Agriculture and Rural Development
Health, Nutrition, and Population
Additional Keywords:
nutrition sensitive agriculture, home gardens
Secondary ID Number(s):

Principal Investigator(s)

Name of First PI:
Pepijn Schreinemachers
AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center
Name of Second PI:
Ralph Roothaert
AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center

Study Sponsor

United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Study Sponsor Location:
United States

Research Partner

Name of Partner Institution:
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Intervention Overview

The objective of the intervention is to reduce malnutrition, especially of women and children, in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda through diet diversification by promoting the production and consumption of vegetables as affordable sources of essential vitamins and micronutrients. The intervention targets poor rural women in households with at least one child below the age of 5 or at least one woman of reproductive age. The intervention has five components: (1) Community sensitization about the risk of malnutrition and the benefits of growing and consuming vegetables; (2) home garden training of leading village persons and target households; (3) distribution of two seed kits, tailored to each country and district, in one year for use in a home garden; (4) set up of a demonstration garden in each village; and (5) campaigning about the importance of nutrition and health. These components are implemented in partnership with private seed companies, local and national governments, nutrition & health partners, and USAID mission and programs. The project aims to reach 25,000 poor rural households in Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda.
Theory of Change:
Multiple Treatment Arms Evaluated?

Implementing Agency

Name of Organization:
There are 21 partners involved, including Farm Concern International, Horticultural Research and Training Institute (HORTI-Tengeru), seed companies, universities, and government organizations.
Type of Organization:
Public-Private partnership

Program Funder

Name of Organization:
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Type of Organization:
Foreign or Multilateral Aid Agency

Intervention Timing

Intervention or Program Started at time of Registration?
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Evaluation Method

Evaluation Method Overview

Primary (or First) Evaluation Method:
Randomized control trial
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Other (not Listed) Method:

Method Details

Details of Evaluation Approach:
The evaluation quantifies the combined effect of all 5 intervention components. For each country we selected 2 or 3 districts in consultation with stakeholders and the donor and made a list of all eligible villages in these districts. Villages were randomly allocated to three groups to start the intervention in years 1-3 of the project and a control group. In each country, a sample of 500 households was randomly selected, equally divided over the group of villages receiving the intervention in year 2 and the control group. Baseline data collection has been completed for Tanzania and will be done in Kenya and Uganda in early 2016. Follow-up data will be collected after 2 years.
Outcomes (Endpoints):
Primary outcomes: (1) Dietary diversity at the household level and for children 1-5 years old was used as an indicator for nutritional outcomes. We did not employ biochemical markers because of ethical and practical considerations. (2) Diversity of vegetable consumption, measured using a 7-day recall. (3) Quantity of vegetables produced and value sold using a 30-day recall. (4) Diversity of vegetable production using a 12-month recall. (5) Household asset value was used a proxy for household living standards and income and was disaggregated by male and female household members. Intermediary outcomes: (6) Area of land allocated to small-scale vegetable production, expressed in square meters. (7) Agricultural techniques used in small-scale vegetable production (e.g. quality seed, fertilizers, raised planting beds). (8) Time spent on small-scale vegetable production by male and female household members measured in minutes per day on average. (9) Months without vegetable harvest from the garden to understand if year-round production was achieved. (10) Expenditures on buying vegetables and other food items in the last 7 days.
Unit of Analysis:
Data will be analyzed at the level of households.
Primary hypothesis: Home garden training targeted at rural households with at least one child below the age of 5 or at least one woman of reproductive age in combination with nutritional awareness raising and the provision of quality vegetable seed leads to improvements in nutritional outcomes for poor rural households in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Secondary hypotheses: (1) Training poor rural households in home gardening and nutrition and giving them quality seed prolongs the period of vegetable availability throughout the year. (2) Women gain control over small-scale vegetable production and reap the benefits of better nutrition and higher income.
Unit of Intervention or Assignment:
Village and household
Number of Clusters in Sample:
50 villages per country
Number of Individuals in Sample:
500 households per country
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:
250 households in the treatment and 250 households in the control subsamples per country

Supplementary Files

Analysis Plan:

Outcomes Data

A questionnaire is conducted among the persons who received the training (usually the woman in the household) at baseline and follow-up.
Data Already Collected?
Data Previously Used?
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Treatment Assignment Data

Participation or Assignment Information:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Previously Used?
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Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
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Data Analysis

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Study Materials

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Registration Category

Registration Category:
Prospective, Category 1: Data for measuring impacts have not been collected

Completion Overview

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Unit of Analysis:
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Preliminary Report:
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Data Availability

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Other Materials

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Description of Changes:

Study Stopped