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Study Overview

Evaluation of the Agriculture, Nutrition, and Gender Linkages (ANGeL) project
Study ID:
Initial Registration Date:
Last Update Date:
Study Status:
The “Agriculture, Nutrition, and Gender Linkages” (ANGeL) project aims to understand the impacts of combining new knowledge on agricultural production, nutrition knowledge, and gender sensitization on farm households in rural Bangladesh. We evaluate the impacts of different combinations of these intervention components on household and individual dietary diversity and women’s empowerment using a multi-arm cluster-randomized impact evaluation. Each treatment arm consists of 25 clusters and 625 target households. Baseline assessments were done in 2015; the intervention is implemented and monitored between 2016 and 2017; endline assessment that includes quantitative surveys and qualitative research will be completed by August 2018.
Agriculture and Rural Development
Health, Nutrition, and Population
Additional Keywords:
Agriculture, nutrition, gender, women’s empowerment
Secondary ID Number(s):

Principal Investigator(s)

Name of First PI:
Dr. Akhter Ahmed
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
Name of Second PI:
Dr. Shalini Roy
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Study Sponsor

Study Sponsor Location:
Funding Proposal:

Research Partner

Name of Partner Institution:
Cornell University
Type of Organization:
Research institute/University
United States

Intervention Overview

There are three interventions: 1. Agriculture Production: The focus is on diversifying agricultural production (fruits and vegetables; pulses; oilseeds; and poultry, dairy, fish, livestock), and covers bed and pit preparation, soil health management, intercropping, quality agricultural inputs, pest control management, postharvest management and marketing, fish farming, and goat, cow, and poultry rearing. 2. Nutrition BCC: Conducting high-quality behavior change communication (BCC) training to improve nutrition at the household level. Topics cover micronutrients (iron, iodine, zinc, vitamin A, etc.), breastfeeding, complementary feeding, women’s nutrition and care, hand washing, and safe food preparation. 3. Gender Sensitization: Undertaking gender sensitization activities that lead to the improvement in the status/empowerment of women. This is based on Helen Keller International’s “Nurturing Connections” curriculum.
Theory of Change:
Multiple Treatment Arms Evaluated?

Implementing Agency

Name of Organization:
Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh
Type of Organization:
Public Sector, e.g. Government Agency or Ministry

Program Funder

Name of Organization:
Type of Organization:
Foreign or Multilateral Aid Agency

Intervention Timing

Intervention or Program Started at time of Registration?
Start Date:
End Date:
Evaluation Method

Evaluation Method Overview

Primary (or First) Evaluation Method:
Randomized control trial
Other (not Listed) Method:
Additional Evaluation Method (If Any):
Other (not Listed) Method:

Method Details

Details of Evaluation Approach:
Limited knowledge of agricultural practices, nutrition as well as attitudes related to gender are constraints to improved production of high-value food commodities, dietary diversity, and women’s empowerment. Our RCT addresses this with the following treatments: T1: Nutrition Behavior Communication (BCC) training delivered by agricultural extension agents from the DAE; T2: Nutrition BCC delivered by local women; T3: Agricultural production training emphasizing diversifying production; T4: Agricultural production training + nutrition BCC; T5: Agricultural production training + nutrition BCC + gender sensitization. We purposively select 16 subdistricts, randomize treatments across administrative blocks (25 blocks per treatment; 35 control). Within each block, from a census of households with one child <24m at baseline, randomly selecting 25. Using baseline and endline data, we will assess levels and correlates of attrition. We will estimate impact using ANCOVA and single difference estimators. Basic estimates will control for treatment status and strata; extended estimates will control for a common set of characteristics. Standard errors will adjust for clustering.
Outcomes (Endpoints):
There are three primary outcomes, corresponding to the three forms of intervention implemented in this study. 1. Agricultural production diversity 2. Diet diversity 3. Women’s empowerment The survey instrument has been designed to collect data on multiple secondary outcomes, including: - Knowledge of good farm practices - Knowledge of good infant and young child feeding practices - Attitudes toward gender and intrahousehold dynamics - Use of inputs in agriculture - Entry into new agricultural activities - Agricultural income - Asset holdings - Household consumption/expenditure per capita (in aggregate and disaggregated by category) - Caloric availability at the household level - Individual caloric intake - Infant and young child feeding practices - Gender Parity Index - Intimate Partner Violence - Micronutrient take at the household level -Individual micronutrient intake -Anthropometry (Height-for-Age (HAZ), Weight-for-Height (WHZ) and Weight-for-Age (WAZ) Z-scores, stunting, wasting, underweight)
Agricultural production diversity: Item count; food groups; concentration and diversity indices. Diet diversity: Household: Food Consumption Score. Women: Women’s dietary diversity score (WDDS) measures the mean number of food groups (out of 9) that non-pregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years old) have consumed over the past 24 hours, based on individual recall. Pre-school children: Child dietary diversity score (CDDS) measures the mean number of food groups (out of 7) that pre-school children (either 6m to 5y or 6m to 24m) have consumed over the past 24 hours, based on individual recall. Women’s empowerment: The Abbreviated Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (A-WEAI ) is a weighted average of the women’s empowerment score in the 5 domains of empowerment (5DE) and the Gender Parity Index (GPI), a measure of the relative empowerment of men and women within the same household.
Unit of Analysis:
Farm households, women of reproductive age, and pre-school children. All analyses will account for clustering of standard errors at the level of allocation of the intervention.
(1) Households in the agriculture arm will have higher agriculture production diversity and dietary diversity than households in the control arm. (2) Households with combined nutrition and agriculture production interventions will have higher agriculture production diversity and dietary diversity than the control arm or compared to interventions that received only one intervention—either nutrition or agriculture production. (3) Households that received nutrition interventions implemented by trained nutrition workers will have higher dietary diversity outcomes than the same interventions implemented by agricultural extension agents, and compared to the control arm. (4) Households in the agriculture, nutrition BCC, and gender sensitization arm will have larger impacts on all outcomes than all other treatment arms and the control arm. (5) Households in the gender sensitization arm will show greater improvements in women’s empowerment than households in the control arm, or households in other treatment arms that did not receive gender sensitization trainings.
Unit of Intervention or Assignment:
The intervention is randomized using blocks of the Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE).
Number of Clusters in Sample:
Number of Individuals in Sample:
4,000 households
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:
T1: Nutrition BCC, 625. T2: Nutrition BCC2, 625. T3: Ag production, 625. T4: Ag production+nutrition BCC, 625. T5: Ag production+nutrition BCC+gender, 625. Control, 875.

Supplementary Files

Analysis Plan:
Other Documents:

Outcomes Data

Household survey
Data Already Collected?
Survey Name:
ANGeL survey
Data Previously Used?
Data Access:
Not restricted - access with no requirements or minimal requirements (e.g. web registration)
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
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Treatment Assignment Data

Participation or Assignment Information:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Previously Used?
Data Access:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Approval Process:
Approval Status:

Data Analysis

Data Analysis Status:

Study Materials

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Registration Category

Registration Category:
Prospective, Category 2: Data for measuring impacts have been collected by others but not obtained or analyzed by the research team

Completion Overview

Intervention Completion Date:
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Unit of Analysis:
Clusters in Final Sample:
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Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:


Preliminary Report:
Preliminary Report URL:
Summary of Findings:
Paper Summary:
Paper Citation:

Data Availability

Data Availability (Primary Data):
Date of Data Availability:
Data URL or Contact:
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Other Materials

Survey Instrument Links or Contact:
Program Files:
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Description of Changes:

Study Stopped