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Study Overview

Impact of Cash Transfers and Nutritional Training on Child Malnutrition in Yemen
Study ID:
Initial Registration Date:
Last Update Date:
Study Status:
Even before the current conflict, Yemen had high levels of child nutrition. This evaluation seeks to measure the impact of a cash transfer and training program for women with children under 5 years old in Al Hodeidah governorate. Further, we will examine heterogeneity in treatment impact by baseline characteristics (e.g. mothers’ education and decision-making power of the women in the household). The evaluation methodology makes use of an RCT which was set up during the pilot period. The baseline was collected in January 2015. Because the program was paused due funding interruption during the conflict, by the final data collection in July 2017, the treatment group had received 9 months worth of transfers and control household remained untreated.
Health, Nutrition, and Population
Social Protection
Additional Keywords:
Cash transfers
Secondary ID Number(s):

Principal Investigator(s)

Name of First PI:
Sikandra Kurdi
Name of Second PI:

Study Sponsor

World Bank
Study Sponsor Location:
Funding Proposal:

Research Partner

Name of Partner Institution:
Yemen Social Fund for Development
Type of Organization:
Government agency (eg., statistics office, Ministry of Health)

Intervention Overview

The Cash for Nutrition provides conditional cash transfers to stimulate attendance at nutritional training sessions and improve nutrition outcomes through increased knowledge about nutritional practices. Participating households are eligible to receive quarterly cash payments, conditional on attendance at monthly community nutritional education sessions, malnutrition screening, compliance with supplemental feeding treatment in the case of malnutrition, and hospitalization for acute malnutrition and severe acute malnutrition. The program also provides training related to the importance of girls’ education. The intervention implements a soft conditionality approach whereby participants are encouraged to participate in activities but are not penalized for non-participation. The intervention targets all households identified as poor by Yemen’s national cash transfer program – Social Welfare Fund (SWF) with children 5 years old or younger in most of the districts in the Al-Hodeidah governorate. Beneficiaries receive cash payments of up to 10,000 riyals per month.
Theory of Change:
Multiple Treatment Arms Evaluated?

Implementing Agency

Name of Organization:
Yemen Social Fund for Development
Type of Organization:
Public Sector, e.g. Government Agency or Ministry

Program Funder

Name of Organization:
UNDP through a World Bank Grant to Yemen
Type of Organization:
NGO (International)

Intervention Timing

Intervention or Program Started at time of Registration?
Start Date:
End Date:
Evaluation Method

Evaluation Method Overview

Primary (or First) Evaluation Method:
Randomized control trial
Other (not Listed) Method:
Additional Evaluation Method (If Any):
Difference in difference/fixed effects
Other (not Listed) Method:

Method Details

Details of Evaluation Approach:
Our impact evaluation strategy is based on random assignment of treatment. The eligibility screening prior to the 2014 baseline identified over 9000 households who were eligible for the nutrition intervention in the target districts of Bait al-Faqih, Al Murawa’a, and Zabeed; while the programs could accommodate only 4800 cases (individual slots) for operational reasons. According to the program design, 2868 of the 4800 slot were allocated to the “first priority” group made up of direct beneficiaries (households heads) or wives of direct beneficiaries. The remaining 1932 slots could be randomly assigned to the “second priority group,” i.e. cases where the mother is a son's wife, daughter, or other relative of the beneficiary other eligible woman (there were 7050 such second priority cases). The randomization was performed at the village level, i.e. from the list of villages with eligible “second priority” women only a subset of treatment villages was randomly drawn. Despite careful randomization differences between the treatment and control samples may occur in some dimensions due to the relatively small sample size. To control for this, we use differences in differences.
Outcomes (Endpoints):
1. Average calorie consumption of staple foods in past 2 days 2. Consumption of key non-staple foods in past week 2. Household Dietary diversity 3. Dietary diversity of women and young children 4. Child weight-for-height and height-for-age z-scores 5. Child illness in past 2 weeks 6. Child mortality 7. Child feeding knowledge and practices related to breastfeeding, complementary feeding and sanitation 8. Access to health services 9. Female empowerment (especially interest in education of girls)
Unit of Analysis:
Primary: The combination of cash transfers and nutritional training improves outcomes Secondary: Impacts are higher for women from poorer households, women with less nutritional knowledge at baseline, literate women, and women who are not living with in-laws
Unit of Intervention or Assignment:
Number of Clusters in Sample:
Number of Individuals in Sample:
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:
Treatment= 1000, Control=1000

Supplementary Files

Analysis Plan:

Outcomes Data

Household survey
Data Already Collected?
Survey Name:
Data Previously Used?
Data Access:
Restricted -- Access requires a formal approval process
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Approval Process:
Application to Yemen Social Fund for Development, UNDP, and World Bank
Approval Status:
Yes-obtained approval and have received the data

Treatment Assignment Data

Participation or Assignment Information:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Previously Used?
Data Access:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Approval Process:
Approval Status:

Data Analysis

Data Analysis Status:

Study Materials

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Registration Category

Registration Category:
Non-Prospective, Category 4: Data for measuring impacts have been obtained/collected by the research team and analysis for this evaluation has started

Completion Overview

Intervention Completion Date:
Data Collection Completion Date:
Unit of Analysis:
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Total Observations in Final Sample:
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:


Preliminary Report:
Preliminary Report URL:
Summary of Findings:
Paper Summary:
Paper Citation:

Data Availability

Data Availability (Primary Data):
Date of Data Availability:
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Other Materials

Survey Instrument Links or Contact:
Program Files:
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External Link Description:
Description of Changes:

Study Stopped