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Study Overview

Title:
Measuring open defecation in rural India
Study ID:
RIDIE-STUDY-ID-5b55458ca54d1
Initial Registration Date:
07/22/2018
Last Update Date:
07/20/2018
Study Status:
Ongoing
Location(s):
India
Abstract:
There is considerable debate regarding the best way to measure open defecation in rural India, and various surveys employ different methods. The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) asks the household-level question: “What kind of toilet facility do members of your household usually use?” The India Human Development Survey and the Census simply ask about the type of toilet facility that the household owns. Among research studies, some report on individual latrine use behavior, and some report on behavior among groups of members within the household, for instance among men and women. It is well-known that survey question and questionnaire design and methodology influence the quality and usefulness of the data obtained. This study aims to understand how to accurately measure open defecation through household surveys. To our knowledge, there have been no studies to date that explicitly aim to assess this question.
Categories:
Water and Sanitation
Additional Keywords:
Secondary ID Number(s):

Principal Investigator(s)

Name of First PI:
Sangita Vyas
Affiliation:
University of Texas
Name of Second PI:
Affiliation:

Study Sponsor

Name:
3ie
Study Sponsor Location:
India
Funding Proposal:

Research Partner

Name of Partner Institution:
Institute for Financial Management and Research
Type of Organization:
Research institute/University
Website:
Location:
India
Intervention

Intervention Overview

Intervention:
This study is evaluating how responses to questions on open defecation differ by how they are asked, and is not as such evaluating a program. The types of questions that will be tested include one that fully aggregates within a household (the method used by the NFHS), and one that completely disaggregates among household members (an individual-level question asked through a household roster). These questions will be embedded within a questionnaire that asks about other topics as well, in order to help prevent reactivity. The type of question asked of a particular household will be randomized at the household level.
Theory of Change:
Multiple Treatment Arms Evaluated?
No

Implementing Agency

Name of Organization:
N/A - no program
Type of Organization:
Other

Program Funder

Name of Organization:
N/A - no program
Type of Organization:
Other

Intervention Timing

Intervention or Program Started at time of Registration?
No
Start Date:
03/01/2018
End Date:
08/31/2018
Evaluation Method

Evaluation Method Overview

Primary (or First) Evaluation Method:
Other (specify)
Other (not Listed) Method:
This study is not implementing a program. The study assesses differences in open defecation measurement based on how the question is asked in survey, which is randomly assigned at household level.
Additional Evaluation Method (If Any):
Other (not Listed) Method:

Method Details

Details of Evaluation Approach:
The study will observe variation in reported open defecation along two dimensions: different latrine use questions, and different teams. The types of questions that will be tested include one that fully aggregates within a household (the method used by the NFHS), and one that completely disaggregates among household members (an individual-level question asked through a household roster). These questions will be embedded within a questionnaire that asks about other topics as well, in order to help prevent reactivity. The type of question asked of a particular household will be randomized at the household level. Multiple observations from the same village collected by different teams will also allow better estimation of the variance of the estimates. Moreover, documenting the variation in estimation will hopefully provide insights into data collection processes, and will help us all better understand the types of questions and ways of asking that work best to assess latrine use.
Outcomes (Endpoints):
reported open defecation
Measurement:
Unit of Analysis:
fraction of households or individuals reporting open defecation
Hypotheses:
We expect that the measurement of open defecation systematically differs by how the question is asked and the level of disaggregation.
Unit of Intervention or Assignment:
household
Number of Clusters in Sample:
Number of Individuals in Sample:
1600 households
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:
800 households

Supplementary Files

Analysis Plan:
preanalysis plan.docx
Other Documents:
Data

Outcomes Data

Description:
Household survey.
Data Already Collected?
Yes
Survey Name:
Data Previously Used?
No
Data Access:
Not restricted - access with no requirements or minimal requirements (e.g. web registration)
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
No
Data Approval Process:
Approval Status:

Treatment Assignment Data

Participation or Assignment Information:
Yes
Description:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Previously Used?
Data Access:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Approval Process:
Approval Status:

Data Analysis

Data Analysis Status:

Study Materials

Upload Study Materials:
: Measurement study questionnaire_ individual use question.docx
: Measurement study questionnaire_ NFHS questions.docx

Registration Category

Registration Category:
Prospective, Category 2: Data for measuring impacts have been collected by others but not obtained or analyzed by the research team
Completion

Completion Overview

Intervention Completion Date:
Data Collection Completion Date:
Unit of Analysis:
Clusters in Final Sample:
Total Observations in Final Sample:
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:

Findings

Preliminary Report:
Preliminary Report URL:
Summary of Findings:
Paper:
Paper Summary:
Paper Citation:

Data Availability

Data Availability (Primary Data):
Date of Data Availability:
Data URL or Contact:
Access procedure:

Other Materials

Survey:
Survey Instrument Links or Contact:
Program Files:
Program Files Links or Contact:
External Link:
External Link Description:
Description of Changes:

Study Stopped

Date:
Reason: