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Study Overview

Last Mile Connectivity Project (Phase I) Impact Evaluation
Study is 3ie funded:
Study ID:
Initial Registration Date:
Last Update Date:
Study Status:
In Development

In this study, we aim to evaluate the Last Mile Connectivity Project , an electrification program targeted at households and businesses across Kenya. The project aims at increasing access to electricity in Kenya by maximizing the use of Kenya Power and Lighting Company (KPLC) existing transformers and strengthening the institutional capacity of KPLC. To identify the impact of the program on beneficiaries, we will exploit a unique design feature of the program: to be eligible, future customers need to be located within 600 m of an existing distribution transformer. Our main identification strategy is therefore a spatial regression discontinuity design based on that 600 m eligibility threshold. We will examine various socio-economic outcomes including income, health, education, and savings, with gender and environment as the cross-cutting themes.  

Registration Citation:
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Secondary ID Number(s):

Principal Investigator(s)

Name of First PI:
Dana Kassem
University of Mannheim
Name of Second PI:
Giulia Zane
Inter-American Development Bank

Study Sponsor

African Development Bank
Study Sponsor Location:
Cote Divoire

Research Partner

Name of Partner Institution:
EED Advisory
Type of Organization:
Private firm

Intervention Overview


The Last Mile Connectivity project aimed at increasing access to electricity in Kenya. The project covered all 47 counties in the country and it principally targeted low income households and small businesses. The target number of beneficiaries to be connected was 284,200 households and a minimum of 30,000 businesses by 2020. There are two  main features of the program designed to achieve this goal:

  1.  Extend the low voltage system throughout the country so that counties with low penetration rate benefit the most from the project: households and businesses within 600 meters of an exisiting LMCP transformer were eligible for a connection. The 600 m threshold is based on the length of the electric cables needed from the transformer to the structure to be connected (and not the Euclidean distance or road to the transfomer).
  2. Subsidize the connection fee to KSH 15,000 for eligible customers 
  3. Stima loans


Theory of Change:

The impacts of the LMCP Phase I will be realized through increased access and use of electricity at a subsidized cost. For instance, poor households connected through the project could purchase electricity and use it in productive and welfare improving activities. 

Multiple Treatment Arms Evaluated?

Implementing Agency

Name of Organization:
Kenya Power and Lighting Company
Type of Organization:
Public Sector, e.g. Government Agency or Ministry

Program Funder

Name of Organization:
African Development Bank
Type of Organization:
Foreign or Multilateral Aid Agency

Intervention Timing

Intervention or Program Started at time of Registration?
Start Date:
End Date:
Evaluation Method

Evaluation Method Overview

Primary (or First) Evaluation Method:
Regression discontinuity
Other (not Listed) Method:
Additional Evaluation Method (If Any):
Difference in difference/fixed effects
Other (not Listed) Method:

Method Details

Details of Evaluation Approach:

In order to credibly estimate the causal impact of LMCP on the socio-economic conditions of the beneficiaries, we exploit a unique design feature of the program, namely, the 600 m eligibility threshold. To be eligible for the subsidy, households or businesses need to be located within 600 m (in cable distance) of an LMCP transformer. Our identification strategy is a spatial regression discontinuity design where we compare eligible households within the 600 m boundary to control households just outside the eligibility border. The assumption is that households on either side of the boundary are similar in every aspect, except their eligibility for the program. See the attached pre-analysis plan for more detail.

Outcomes (Endpoints):

Primary outcomes: Use of KPLC, Use electricity for lighting, Total spending on energy, Employment, Monthly HH Income, Woman labor supply, Monthly Consumption, Respiratory health Index, School enrollment, Asset Ownership, Life satisfaction, Knowledge Index

See attached analysis plan for more detail.

Unit of Analysis:

We will test the hypothesis that electricity improves the socio-economic outcomes of beneficiaries.

Unit of Intervention or Assignment:
Number of Clusters in Sample:
Number of Individuals in Sample:
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:
Treatment: 3,725 / Control: 3,725

Supplementary Files

Analysis Plan:
LMCP Pre-Analysis Plan.pdf
Other Documents:

Outcomes Data

Primary data collected through an in-person survey of LMCP beneficiaries and suitable control households.
Data Already Collected?
Data Previously Used?
Data Access:
Not restricted - access with no requirements or minimal requirements (e.g. web registration)
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
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Treatment Assignment Data

Participation or Assignment Information:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Previously Used?
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Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
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Data Analysis

Data Analysis Status:

Study Materials

Upload Study Materials:
Survey Instrument: LMCP household questionnaire KKM Pilot.pdf

Registration Category

Registration Category:
Prospective, Category 2: Data for measuring impacts have been collected by others but not obtained or analyzed by the research team

Completion Overview

Intervention Completion Date:
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Unit of Analysis:
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Total Observations in Final Sample:
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Preliminary Report:
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Summary of Findings:
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Data Availability

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Other Materials

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Description of Changes:

Study Stopped