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Study Overview

Improving the link between vocational high schools and industry: evaluation of teacher training in Indonesia
Study is 3ie funded:
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Initial Registration Date:
Last Update Date:
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Improving the educational practice in vocational education with the best practice in the industry is a priority for the Indonesian Ministry of Education. Vocational high schools in Indonesia enroll one-half of all upper-secondary level students, but its graduates have the the highest open unemployment rate compared to graduates from other types of education.

To address this issue, in 2020, the Directorate General of Vocational Education (MitrasDUDI-MOECRT) collaborated with various industries and launched an innovative professional teacher development program to improve teachers’ skills in their respective vocational fields (e.g., software engineering, elderly care, and animation). Previous evidence shows intensive and structured professional development can yield significant impact, but there is limited evidence on the impact of structured teacher training for both developing countries and post-primary vocational education and on the role of the private sector in training. This study will evaluate the impact of the training.

Registration Citation:
Additional Keywords:
Vocational Education, Capacity Building, Teacher Professional Development
Secondary ID Number(s):

Principal Investigator(s)

Name of First PI:
Masyhur Hilmy
Boston University
Name of Second PI:
César Luis Garro-Marín
Boston University

Study Sponsor

The Weiss Fund, J-PAL Southeast Asia Indonesia Research Grant
Study Sponsor Location:

Research Partner

Name of Partner Institution:
Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology (Kemendikbud Mitras DUDI)
Type of Organization:
Government agency (eg., statistics office, Ministry of Health)

Intervention Overview


The treatment is an innovative professional development program that connects vocational school teachers to industry in various sectors, e.g. software engineering, elderly care, and animation. These training programs were provided by private firms in respective vocational sectors in collaboration with the ministry through a six-week blended program. 

Theory of Change:
  • Teachers selected/invited to participate in training by firms
  • Teachers attended training
  • Teachers obtained new skills/knowledge related to the vocational field from training implementers
  • Teachers return to school, improve classroom approach
  • Training improves expectation of students outcomes after graduation from vocational high schools
Multiple Treatment Arms Evaluated?

Implementing Agency

Name of Organization:
Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology
Type of Organization:
Public Sector, e.g. Government Agency or Ministry

Program Funder

Name of Organization:
Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology
Type of Organization:
Public Sector, e.g. Government Agency or Ministry

Intervention Timing

Intervention or Program Started at time of Registration?
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Evaluation Method

Evaluation Method Overview

Primary (or First) Evaluation Method:
Other (not Listed) Method:
Additional Evaluation Method (If Any):
Randomized control trial
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Method Details

Details of Evaluation Approach:
Outcomes (Endpoints):


  • knowledge (for six sectors only, % correct statement)
  • classroom practices (%class time spent to deliver material, discussion, and independent student work)
  • expectations of labor market outcomes for their students (employment rate after 3 months of graduation, average salary, university continuation, subjective assesment that SMK graduates are industry-ready)

Pathway outcomes

  • training participation recall 
  • training intensity (total hours of overall training, total hours for on-the-job training, total hours on online sessions, frequency of follow-up sessions)
  • adoption of training material in school
  • perceived effectiveness, subjective ratings
Unit of Analysis:
Teacher (individual-level)

Treatment have no effects on outcomes. The treatments have no interaction effects. The effects do not vary with selected baseline characteristics of the teachers.

Unit of Intervention or Assignment:
Number of Clusters in Sample:
Number of Individuals in Sample:
2000 teachers
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:
1158 treatment 842 control

Outcomes Data

The primary data will come from a phone survey to a sample of vocational high school teachers who applied to participate in the training.
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Treatment Assignment Data

Participation or Assignment Information:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
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Data Analysis

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Study Materials

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Registration Category

Registration Category:
Prospective, Category 1: Data for measuring impacts have not been collected

Completion Overview

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Preliminary Report:
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Data Availability

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Other Materials

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Description of Changes:

Study Stopped