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Study Overview

Transforming women-run handloom enterprises in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana
Study is 3ie funded:
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Initial Registration Date:
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We study the impact of value chain development in women’s collective weaver organisations on household and women’s economic outcomes and their agency in the enterprise and the household. The project “Creating agency of women in weaving value-chain in India” by Chitrika aims to scale up three producer companies with existing 600 members to include 1,100 additional members. We propose a village level randomised evaluation design where randomly selected weaving villages will participate in the project. We use three rounds of household and enterprise panel data and process level qualitative data to estimate program impacts and understand the mechanisms of change.

Registration Citation:

Barooah, B; Jain, C; Banerjee, S; Kejriwal, K; Hammaker, J. Transforming women-run handloom enterprises in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Registry for International Development for Impact Evaluations (RIDIE). Available at: UPDATE LINK

Agriculture and Rural Development
Additional Keywords:
women's empowerment
Secondary ID Number(s):

Principal Investigator(s)

Name of First PI:
Bidisha Barooah
Name of Second PI:
Tarun Jain
Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad

Study Sponsor

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Study Sponsor Location:
United States

Research Partner

Name of Partner Institution:
Type of Organization:
NGO (local) or other civil society organization

Intervention Overview


Chitrika has collectivized and incubated three farmer producer companies with 600 members since 2006. In the project period i.e., from 2021 to 2023, the goal is to scale up to include 1100 additional members. This is to be achieved by reaching out to new geographical regions and forming new FPCs. In areas where Chitrika is already operating, new women members will be collectivised into the existing FPCs. 

Theory of Change:

The evaluation is organized under the following theory of change:

1) Women are mobilized to join women’s enterprise collectives formed under Chitrika’s programme and participate in skills-based and business management training; common facilities are set up that provide advanced weaving tools and technology

2) Participating in the program increases women’s participation in entrepreneurial activities, business skills and social capital; enterprises increase capacity to produce high-quality and quantity products

3) Equipped with leadership and entrepreneurial skill sets and functioning machinery, women-led collectives develop market and institutional linkages to sell products and generate revenue. Increase in sales generates income for women. Women control the collectives’ economic and human capital resources. This leads to greater confidence among participants.

4) Women are more equipped to participate in personal, household, enterprise and community decision-making. 

Multiple Treatment Arms Evaluated?

Implementing Agency

Name of Organization:
Type of Organization:
NGO (local)/Community Based Organization/Other civil society organization

Program Funder

Name of Organization:
Type of Organization:
NGO (International)

Intervention Timing

Intervention or Program Started at time of Registration?
Start Date:
End Date:
Evaluation Method

Evaluation Method Overview

Primary (or First) Evaluation Method:
Randomized control trial
Other (not Listed) Method:
Additional Evaluation Method (If Any):
Other (specify)
Other (not Listed) Method:
Process evaluation, Qualitative evaluation

Method Details

Details of Evaluation Approach:

3ie will use a theory-based, mixed methods experimental approach to evaluate the Chitrika programme. To examine the impacts of the project and establish the causal link between project interventions and outcomes, we will use experimental methods to identify the counterfactual against which project areas will be compared. To understand the contextual factors that may influence project impact and project implementation, we will use qualitative methods such as key informant interviews and focus group discussion with project participants and non-participants.   

We adopt a cluster randomized method to establish causality in which villages will be randomly assigned to the project (treatment) or not (control).  The research team will develop survey instruments to collect data on project participants and non-participants at the individual, household and collective level before project activities begin in both treatment and control villages in November 2021. The same sample will be interviewed at the midline in 2022 and endline in 2023 to examine the changes in key processes and outcomes.

The evaluation will include a qualitative process evaluation in which we will analyse the implementation of the project, highlighting areas of strong and weak implementation. This will help us answer why the project was or was not able to achieve its stated outcomes. It will include an examination of participation in the project by women weavers, the quality of trainings, as well as the reach of project services. This should also help us in getting a clearer understanding of the overall context of the region and community, structural barriers to women’s empowerment in the region and the journey of women weavers in overcoming the same.

Outcomes (Endpoints):

We will monitor intermediate and final outcomes.

In our intermediate outcomes we measure:

  1. Participation in entrepreneurial activities
  2. Social capital
  3. Business skills
  4. Quality and quantity of products

 In our final outcomes we measure:

  1. Confidence
  2. Participation in personal, household, enterprise and community decision making
  3. Ownership and control over productive assets
  4. Income
  5. Sales/profits of enterprises
Unit of Analysis:
Results are analysed at the participant/individual level. All regressions will be clustered at the level of the village which is the unit of treatment assignment.


Unit of Intervention or Assignment:
Number of Clusters in Sample:
There are 77 villages in our sample, of which 38 are assigned to the treatment group.
Number of Individuals in Sample:
3080 households
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:
38 in treatment, 39 in control

Supplementary Files

Analysis Plan:
Other Documents:

Outcomes Data

Household survey fielded to head of household, Women’s survey to female household member (based on eligibility criteria for the Chitrika programme), and village survey to village leader will be fielded at baseline, midline and endline.
Data Already Collected?
Data Previously Used?
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Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
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Treatment Assignment Data

Participation or Assignment Information:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Previously Used?
Data Access:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Approval Process:
Approval Status:

Data Analysis

Data Analysis Status:

Study Materials

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Registration Category

Registration Category:
Prospective, Category 1: Data for measuring impacts have not been collected

Completion Overview

Intervention Completion Date:
Data Collection Completion Date:
Unit of Analysis:
Clusters in Final Sample:
Total Observations in Final Sample:
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:


Preliminary Report:
Preliminary Report URL:
Summary of Findings:
Paper Summary:
Paper Citation:

Data Availability

Data Availability (Primary Data):
Date of Data Availability:
Data URL or Contact:
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Other Materials

Survey Instrument Links or Contact:
Program Files:
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External Link Description:
Description of Changes:

Study Stopped