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Study Overview

Study is 3ie funded:
Study ID:
Initial Registration Date:
Last Update Date:
Study Status:
In Development

In Africa, youth are 3 times more likely to be unemployed than adults. The creative sector is probably the only industry that employs more younger people than adults and creates more formal than informal jobs. The industry’s potential to create jobs, sustainable businesses, and livelihoods is yet to be harnessed due to the use of an inept business model that creates inefficiencies in the value chain. This study seeks to test the effectiveness of a flipped creatives model (that begins with the market to production and back to market) in overcoming systemic barriers in the creative industry thus generating decent and sustainable jobs, and competitive advantage consequently improve the livelihoods of young people. The model, developed by use of the Approaches to Inclusive Market Systems (AIMS) approach was validated by stakeholders in June 2023. A sample of 600 upcoming artists from the Western and Coastal regions will be used. Participants will be randomized and those in the waiting lists will be placed in the control group and those at the coastal region exposed to the flipped creatives model. Data will be collected through the survey approach and average treatment effects calculated to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. The study is demand-driven and will engage stakeholders at all stages

Registration Citation:
Additional Keywords:
creative sector, commercialization of talent, flipped model for creatives
Secondary ID Number(s):
C5KEN-United States International University-Africa

Principal Investigator(s)

Name of First PI:
Amos Njuguna
Network of Impact Evaluation Researchers in Africa
Name of Second PI:
Salome Asena
United States International University Africa

Study Sponsor

Network of Impact Evaluation Researchers in Africa
Study Sponsor Location:

Research Partner

Name of Partner Institution:
Utrecht University
Type of Organization:
Research institute/University

Intervention Overview


The project employs a transformative flipped model to reshape the traditional production-to-market approach in the creative arts sector. This intervention addresses the challenges faced by creatives through various strategies:

  • Establishing creative living labs in the coastal, western, and central regions of Kenya, designed to foster content creation while focusing on dismantling systemic barriers and promoting inclusivity.
  • Executing thorough market analysis, pre-production, and content testing to ensure that content resonates with market demand, thus equipping youth to effectively lead, manage, and market their content.
  • Implementing mentorship programs to enlighten young creatives about the intricacies and dynamics of the creative arts sector.
  • Facilitating linkages between youths and both public and private sector market spaces.
  • Linking young creatives to sources of finance through Wabunii SACCO, fostering a culture of saving among creatives.
  • Providing a comprehensive training program encompassing life and soft skills, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, financial literacy, legal and ethical considerations, digital marketing and personal branding, business registration procedures, and content development.

The intervention is slated to span a four-month duration, with the ultimate goal of creating new employment opportunities, enhancing content quality, and establishing connections between youth and potential consumers of creative content, thus ensuring sustainable income and employment opportunities.

Theory of Change:

Our Theory of Change, guided by the human centered design, postulates that IF young people are empowered through consortiums of experienced players in the creative sector to lead, own, manage and market creative content TO address the barriers they face in the creative industry, THEN there will be a measurable impact in their wellbeing and livelihoods that will be manifested through sustainable decent jobs and businesses.


Multiple Treatment Arms Evaluated?

Implementing Agency

Name of Organization:
United States International University
Type of Organization:
Research Institution/University

Program Funder

Name of Organization:
Type of Organization:
NGO (International)

Intervention Timing

Intervention or Program Started at time of Registration?
Start Date:
End Date:
Evaluation Method

Evaluation Method Overview

Primary (or First) Evaluation Method:
Randomized control trial
Other (not Listed) Method:
Additional Evaluation Method (If Any):
Difference in difference/fixed effects
Other (not Listed) Method:

Method Details

Details of Evaluation Approach:

The study will use Difference in Difference regression analysis to assess the impact of the intervention on the primary study outcomes. In this design, the primary objective is to measure the average difference over time in the outcomes between two groups one comprising 300 treatment units that received the flipped model program (Intervention (I)) and the other comprising 300 control units that did not receive the program (Control (C)).

Outcomes (Endpoints):

Systemic barriers: change over time in the relative number of creatives having knowledge on intellectual property, access market, access information and financial services.

Decent jobs: Change over time in in the relative number of creatives having improved income from their creative activities.

Longer job tenure: Changes over time in the number of creatives consistently earning a decent income from their creative activities for six consecutive months

Improved Competitive advantage: Changes over time in the number of creatives with increased number of creative assets for their production.

Improved personal wellbeing: Changes over time in the number of creatives with improved wellbeing score measured using four internationally recognized indicators for PERMA Scale – Well-being Measures championed by Cabrera and Donaldson (2023)

Unit of Analysis:

The study will be predicated on the following five hypotheses;

Hypothesis 1: Empowering upcoming artists by use of the flipped model enables them to overcome systemic barriers in the creative sector.

Hypothesis 2: Applying the flipped model in the creatives sector provides decent jobs for upcoming artists

Hypothesis 3: Applying the flipped model in the creatives sector contributes to longer job tenure for upcoming artists 

Hypothesis 4: Applying the flipped model in the creatives sector contributes to a competitive advantage for upcoming artists 

Hypothesis 5: Applying the flipped model in the creatives sector contributes to improved personal wellbeing for upcoming artists

Unit of Intervention or Assignment:
Number of Clusters in Sample:
4 creative hubs
Number of Individuals in Sample:
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:

Supplementary Files

Analysis Plan:
ARTISTIC PATHWAYS FOR YOUTH EMPLOYMENT_Pre Analysis Plan Draft_C 27102023 (003).docx
Other Documents:

Outcomes Data

Survey data, administrative data
Data Already Collected?
Data Previously Used?
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Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
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Treatment Assignment Data

Participation or Assignment Information:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Previously Used?
Data Access:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Approval Process:
Approval Status:

Data Analysis

Data Analysis Status:

Study Materials

Upload Study Materials:

Registration Category

Registration Category:
Prospective, Category 1: Data for measuring impacts have not been collected

Completion Overview

Intervention Completion Date:
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Unit of Analysis:
Clusters in Final Sample:
Total Observations in Final Sample:
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:


Preliminary Report:
Preliminary Report URL:
Summary of Findings:
Paper Summary:
Paper Citation:

Data Availability

Data Availability (Primary Data):
Date of Data Availability:
Data URL or Contact:
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Other Materials

Survey Instrument Links or Contact:
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Description of Changes:

Study Stopped