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Study Overview

Early grade bilingual reading promotion with community intervention for indigenous populations
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Indigenous children often have low literacy levels and limited understanding of the language of school instruction. This study tests two versions of a three-year intervention implemented by an NGO, Save the Children, aimed at developing specific literacy and pre-literacy skills and promoting a culture of reading in the home and community for indigenous populations. The study follows students in grade 1 for three years. It is designed as a randomized controlled trial in which schools are randomly assigned to one of three groups: one treatment group that receives in-school intervention, a second treatment group that receives in-school and out-of-school intervention, and a control group that receives “business as usual” instruction. The study compares students’ reading skills and other outcomes in each of the three groups over time.

Registration Citation:

Glazerman, S. and Campuzano, L., 2014. Early grade bilingual reading promotion with community intervention for indigenous populations. Registry for International Development for Impact Evaluations (RIDIE). Available at: 10.23846/ridie027

Economic Policy
Additional Keywords:
bilingual education, indigenous populations, early grade reading, teacher training, community action
Secondary ID Number(s):

Principal Investigator(s)

Name of First PI:
Steven Glazerman
Mathematica Policy Research
Name of Second PI:
Larissa Campuzano
Mathematica Policy Research

Study Sponsor

Study Sponsor Location:
United States

Research Partner

Name of Partner Institution:
GRADE (Peru) and DMC (Guatemala)
Type of Organization:
Private firm

Intervention Overview


The intervention , called Leer Juntos, Aprender Juntos (Read Together, Learn Together) by its developer, Save the Children, provides teacher training, coaching, and community action. Community action includes recruitment of community volunteers to do activities such as develop maternal language reading materials, develop mobile libraries, and provide Reading Buddies and Reading Camps. The intervention is based on a model that Save the Children has developed previously called Literacy Boost.

Theory of Change:
Multiple Treatment Arms Evaluated?

Implementing Agency

Name of Organization:
Save the Children
Type of Organization:
NGO (International)

Program Funder

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Type of Organization:
Foreign or Multilateral Aid Agency

Intervention Timing

Intervention or Program Started at time of Registration?
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Evaluation Method

Evaluation Method Overview

Primary (or First) Evaluation Method:
Randomized control trial
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Method Details

Details of Evaluation Approach:

The impact evaluation is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with three arms replicated in two countries. The trial is being implemented with two cohorts of schools in each country. We implemented stratified random assignment using school size, geographic location, and language of instruction as stratifiers. We are collecting data in each of the three years of intervention and one additional year of planned followup with the first cohort (roughly half) of the schools.

Outcomes (Endpoints):

Primary: early grade reading, as measured by EGRA (Early Grade Reading Assessment) Fluency: Words per minute in Spanish and in native language (Quechua in Peru, Quiche in Guatemala) Also, we are testing for comprehension, vocabulary, and phonemic awareness. Secondary: Culture of reading, as measured by household survey (e.g. prevalence of print materials in the home, frequency of adults reading to children, adults reading, children reading by themselves) Changes in instructional practice, as measured by classroom observation Student persistence in school (retention in school, promotion to next grade) Reduced teacher absenteeism

Unit of Analysis:

Primary: 1. Teacher training and support services that emphasize specific literacy skills like phonemic awareness and decoding are more effective at creating fluent readers than “mixed emphasis” approaches that constitute traditional approaches to early grade reading. 2. ”Community action” activities, such as reading camps, reading buddies, and community-created written materials in indigenous languages increase the impact of teacher training on reading fluency and create a culture of reading as measured by indicators of reading and print materials availability in household surveys and classroom observations.

Unit of Intervention or Assignment:
Number of Clusters in Sample:
300 (150 schools in each country)
Number of Individuals in Sample:
2,400 students
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:
Approximately 100 schools per treatment arm

Supplementary Files

Analysis Plan:
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Outcomes Data

Year 0: Background data on the universe of possible schools Year 1: Baseline child assessment, classroom observation, and school observation Year 2: Teacher survey and household survey Year 3: Child assessment (EGRA), classroom observation, teacher survey Year 4: Child assessment (EGRA) -- cohort 1 only
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Treatment Assignment Data

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Data Analysis

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Study Materials

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Registration Category

Registration Category:
Prospective, Category 1: Data for measuring impacts have not been collected

Completion Overview

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Preliminary Report:
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Data Availability

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Other Materials

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Description of Changes:

Study Stopped