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Study Overview

Evaluating the Impact of Community Development on Typhoon Resilience: Evidence from the Philippines
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The aim of this paper is to measure the effect of community driven development interventions on socioeconomic losses caused by natural disaster shocks. This study uses household and municipality level panel data on the Kapit-Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan – Comprehensive Integrated Delivery of Social Service (KALAHI-CIDSS) program in the Philippines combined with data on regional typhoon intensity to retrospectively estimate the effect of institutional reform on natural disaster resilience. The project employs a randomized evaluation strategy in the hopes that results could provide insight on the causal effect of more inclusive institutions on resilience to natural disasters and aggregate shocks in general.

Registration Citation:

Abraham, J., 2014. Evaluating the Impact of Community Development on Typhoon Resilience: Evidence from the Philippines. Registry for International Development for Impact Evaluations (RIDIE). Available at: 10.23846/ridie026

Environment and Disaster Management
Health, Nutrition, and Population
Social Protection
Urban Development
Additional Keywords:
community driven development, natural disasters, typhoons, disaster resilience, tropical cyclones
Secondary ID Number(s):

Principal Investigator(s)

Name of First PI:
Justin Abraham
University of California, Berkeley
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Intervention Overview


Initiated in January 2003, KALAHI-CIDSS sought to strengthen community participation in barangay (village) governance and to develop local capacity to design, implement and manage development activities. The intervention targeted the 25 percent poorest municipalities in 42 of the poorest provinces and distributed approximately PHP 300,000 (USD 7,400) to each village to support local subprojects. The project funds flowed directly from the Philippine Department of Social Welfare and Development into community bank accounts to be used according to inclusive decision-making procedures. The intervention established a structured participatory process for communities to identify, prioritize, and implement local subprojects. In each participating municipality, the program is implemented according to a subproject cycle that involves the identification of village priorities, the establishment of a Municipal Inter Village Forum to select subprojects, and implementation by village volunteers.

Theory of Change:
Multiple Treatment Arms Evaluated?

Implementing Agency

Name of Organization:
Philippines Department of Social Welfare and Development
Type of Organization:
Public Sector, e.g. Government Agency or Ministry

Program Funder

Name of Organization:
World Bank
Type of Organization:
Foreign or Multilateral Aid Agency

Intervention Timing

Intervention or Program Started at time of Registration?
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Evaluation Method

Evaluation Method Overview

Primary (or First) Evaluation Method:
Randomized control trial
Other (not Listed) Method:
Additional Evaluation Method (If Any):
Difference in difference/fixed effects
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Method Details

Details of Evaluation Approach:

This paper will utilize the survey data from the World Bank with data on regional typhoon intensities to evaluate the impact of KALAHI on community disaster resilience. Information on typhoon exposure is generated by reconstructing tropical cyclone incidence using the Limited Information Cyclone Reconstruction and Integration for Climate and Economics (LICRICE) Model. In addition to contemporaneous typhoon incidence, a history of typhoon exposure may have an impact on the dependent variables. A general framework for testing the effect of KALAHI on typhoon response is to regress the outcomes of interest on a treatment indicator, a measure of typhoon exposure, and controls for cross-sectional and time-dependent covariates using the following fixed effects model. Similarly, a community's storm sensitivity may vary with the extent of subproject completion and maturity. To estimate these effects, the paper examines a finite distributed lag model over treatment assignment and typhoon exposure.

Outcomes (Endpoints):

Consumption in log per capita expenditures Food share of log per capita expenditures Employment levels Participation in crop farming, fishing, raising livestock Disease incidence Self-rated poverty level Access to water, electricity, health services Access to schools Log expenditure on transportation Participation in a collective action activity Willingness to contribute time or money to a public project Intent to vote in upcoming elections Level of trust in the government Attendance in village assemblies

Unit of Analysis:

1. Participation in KALAHI mitigates negative welfare shocks due to typhoons. Outcome variables to be tested include consumption in log per capita expenditures, food share of log per capita expenditures, employment levels, self-rated poverty level, participation in crop farming, fishing, raising livestock and disease incidence. 2. Participation in KALAHI strengthens post-disaster access to public services. Outcome variables to be tested include access to water, electricity, health services, access to schools, school enrollment, and log expenditure on transportation. 3. Gains in social capital due to KALAHI are robust to typhoon events. Outcome variables to be tested include participation in a collective action activity, willingness to contribute time or money to a public project, intent to vote in upcoming elections, level of trust in the government, and attendance in village assemblies.

Unit of Intervention or Assignment:
Number of Clusters in Sample:
Number of Individuals in Sample:
2,400 households in the baseline survey and 1,900 households in the endline survey
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:
Both treatment and control groups each have a sample size of 1,200

Supplementary Files

Analysis Plan:
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Outcomes Data

A survey team collected quantitative panel data throughout the project implementation in a sample of KALAHI treatment municipalities and from comparable control municipalities. The KALAHI surveys were fielded in Albay, Capiz, Zamboanga del Sur and Agusan del Sur provinces, selected to represent the major island groups of the Philippines.
Data Already Collected?
Data Previously Used?
Data Access:
Not restricted - access with no requirements or minimal requirements (e.g. web registration)
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Treatment Assignment Data

Participation or Assignment Information:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Previously Used?
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Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
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Data Analysis

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Study Materials

Upload Study Materials:
Data Coding Manual: Coding manual - 16aug12.pdf
World Bank KALAHI-CIDSS Microdata:

Registration Category

Registration Category:
Prospective, Category 3: Data for measuring impacts have been obtained/collected by the research team but analysis for this evaluation has not started

Completion Overview

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Preliminary Report:
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Summary of Findings:
Paper Summary:
Paper Citation:

Data Availability

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Other Materials

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Description of Changes:

Study Stopped