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Study Overview

Return to capital in post-conflict context: Impact evaluation of asset and cash transfers in South Sudan
Study is 3ie funded:
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The analysis of extreme poverty suggests that its persistence reflects the multiple and intersecting nature of the constraints experienced by the ultra-poor that keep them trapped in poverty. In response, BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, launched an innovative new approach for reducing extreme poverty by addressing these multiple constraints simultaneously. Its ‘Targeting the Ultra-Poor’ (TUP) program takes an integrated approach, combining transfer of productive assets (primarily livestock), a cash stipend to support subsistence needs for the first year, intensive supervision, training and mentoring for two years and health care support. While there are growing amount of evidence on the effectiveness of this intervention in several countries, this pilot project evaluates its replication in South Sudan. In addition to measuring the impact of the program, our research also intends to assess cost-effectiveness of the intervention package by experimentally varying the value of transferred assets and directly comparing with unconditional cash transfer.

Registration Citation:

Sulaiman, M., Ligon, E., Collins, E., Barua, P. and Chowdhary, R.A., 2014. Return to capital in post-conflict context: Impact evaluation of asset and cash transfers in South Sudan. Registry for International Development for Impact Evaluations (RIDIE). Available at: 10.23846/ridie038

Agriculture and Rural Development
Social Protection
Additional Keywords:
Ultra-poor, asset transfer, cash transfer, training
Secondary ID Number(s):

Principal Investigator(s)

Name of First PI:
Munshi Sulaiman
Yale University
Name of Second PI:
Ethan Ligon, Elliot Collins, Proloy Barua and Reajul Alam Chowdhury
University of Calofornia, Berkeley and BRAC

Study Sponsor

Study Sponsor Location:
United States

Research Partner

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Intervention Overview


There are three intervention arms. The first two are 'TUP' treatments where each household will receive regular tailored support including initial food stipends, livelihood skills training and assets, financial training and support with savings. The difference between these two TUP treatments is that our two groups vary in the value of the asset being transferred: one group receiving assets twice in value than the other. The third intervention group will receive cash equivalent to the value of asset transferred to TUP arm with low asset. The beneficiaries are selected through a combination of proxy-means indicators and community meetings to reach 'ultra-poor' households.

Theory of Change:
Multiple Treatment Arms Evaluated?

Implementing Agency

Name of Organization:
BRAC South Sudan
Type of Organization:
NGO (local)/Community Based Organization/Other civil society organization

Program Funder

Name of Organization:
Type of Organization:
Foreign or Multilateral Aid Agency

Intervention Timing

Intervention or Program Started at time of Registration?
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Evaluation Method

Evaluation Method Overview

Primary (or First) Evaluation Method:
Randomized control trial
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Additional Evaluation Method (If Any):
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Method Details

Details of Evaluation Approach:

First, based on local knowledge of BRAC employees, the target area is divided into clusters (i.e. villages) where the NGO operations are relatively low and the poorer households are clustered. A census is conducted in these selected clusters to collect information on assets and income. Eligible households were identified by using these indicators. Community meetings are conducted to verify eligibility of these households before they were finally selected by the intervention team. This list of households has been used to conduct the baseline survey. Randomization into the control and treatment arms is done at household level after completing baseline with four stratification variables (viz. median number of income earners, median of assets owned, whether involved in agriculture and whether has a business).

Outcomes (Endpoints):

Employment (in terms of hours spent in different types of economic activities: wage, agriculture, livestock rearing and non-farm) and income are the primary outcome variables. The secondary outcomes include financial and physical assets, food security, and food and non-food consumption. As intermediary outcomes, we intend to measure investment in assets by the households in cash treatment. Finally, we will use network data to explore spillover effects on control households.

Unit of Analysis:
Unit of Intervention or Assignment:
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Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:
Control: 255; TUP with low asset: 128; TUP with high asset: 127; Cash: 127

Outcomes Data

1. Household survey: Baseline and endline. 2. A post-disbursement survey on households receiving cash transfers. 3. Program records on intervention
Data Already Collected?
Data Previously Used?
Data Access:
Not restricted - access with no requirements or minimal requirements (e.g. web registration)
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
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Treatment Assignment Data

Participation or Assignment Information:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Previously Used?
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Data Analysis

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Study Materials

Upload Study Materials:
Survey instrument: ssudan TUP_questionnaire.pdf
Instrument for census: Census questions.docx
Stata do file to screen households using census data: Selection_do_flie.txt
Randomization do file: Randomization_do_file.txt

Registration Category

Registration Category:
Prospective, Category 2: Data for measuring impacts have been collected by others but not obtained or analyzed by the research team

Completion Overview

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Preliminary Report:
Preliminary Report URL:
Summary of Findings:
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Data Availability

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Other Materials

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Description of Changes:

Study Stopped