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Study Overview

Gender segregated public transport in Rio de Janeiro
Study is 3ie funded:
Study ID:
Initial Registration Date:
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Study Status:

Sexual harassment imposes psychological and economic costs. It affects women’s decisions on how and when to move in the public space, potentially influencing significant decisions such as job choice. However, quantifying the impact of harassment is difficult because of measurement issues. This study uses a novel experiment to quantify the economic impact of harassment in urban public transport.

Registration Citation:

Vyborny, K. and Kondylis, F., 2017. Gender segregated public transport in Rio de Janeiro. Registry for International Development for Impact Evaluations (RIDIE). Available at: 10.23846/ridie121

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Secondary ID Number(s):

Principal Investigator(s)

Name of First PI:
Katherine Vyborny
Duke University
Name of Second PI:
Florence Kondylis
World Bank

Study Sponsor

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Research Partner

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Intervention Overview


This study takes place in the setting of Rio de Janeiro’s Supervia suburban rail system, which has dedicated women’s-only cars during rush hour.

Theory of Change:
Multiple Treatment Arms Evaluated?

Implementing Agency

Name of Organization:
Type of Organization:
Public-Private partnership

Program Funder

Name of Organization:
Government of Rio de Janeiro State
Type of Organization:
Public Sector, e.g. Government Agency or Ministry

Intervention Timing

Intervention or Program Started at time of Registration?
Start Date:
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Evaluation Method

Evaluation Method Overview

Primary (or First) Evaluation Method:
Randomized control trial
Other (not Listed) Method:
Additional Evaluation Method (If Any):
Difference in difference/fixed effects
Other (not Listed) Method:

Method Details

Details of Evaluation Approach:

See attached

Outcomes (Endpoints):

• Take-up of women-only car: binary variable on type of car taken on each ride • Occurrences of harassment or crime: binary variable for experiencing unwanted comments, touching or robbery during each ride • Self-reported well-being: stated levels of happiness, sadness, frustration and stress after each ride, as well as overall subjective well-being, each on a scale from 1 to 10 • Implicit Association Test D-score as calculated in as detailed in Greenwald, Nosek and Banaji (2003).

Unit of Analysis:
Component 1: Ride (every time a user takes the metro, up to two observations per user per day). Component 2: Respondent-IAT instrument

We will test each of the following key hypotheses to answer the main question: • The women’s-only car reduces harassment experienced by women who ride it. • Riding the women’s-only car improves the psychological well-being of those who ride it. • Women are willing to forego income to ride the women’s-only car. In addition, we include supplementary research methods (IAT and platform survey) to help address an additional hypothesis related to the secondary question: • The women’s-only car is associated with a social norm that assigns responsibility to women for avoiding harassment.

Unit of Intervention or Assignment:
Number of Clusters in Sample:
Number of Individuals in Sample:
Component 1: 547 individuals for a total of 23,795 rides. Component 2: expected - 300 individuals in IAT
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:
Component 1: 9,335 baseline rides (no premium) 10,616 rides during price experiment (premium is randomized) 3,844 assigned-car rides

Supplementary Files

Other Documents:
Description of methodology: RIDIE registry methodology description.docx

Outcomes Data

Component 1 (collected): An incentivized survey filled on a smartphone app by study participants before, after and during rush-hour metro rides. Component 2 (planned): A survey of a representative sample of Supervia riders carried out on the train platform, and IAT scores for a subsample of these respondents.
Data Already Collected?
Data Previously Used?
Data Access:
Restricted -- Access requires a formal approval process
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Approval Process:
Data are generated by the IE team.
Approval Status:
Yes-obtained approval and have received the data

Treatment Assignment Data

Participation or Assignment Information:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Previously Used?
Data Access:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Approval Process:
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Data Analysis

Data Analysis Status:

Study Materials

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Registration Category

Registration Category:
Non-Prospective, Category 4: Data for measuring impacts have been obtained/collected by the research team and analysis for this evaluation has started

Completion Overview

Intervention Completion Date:
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Unit of Analysis:
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Total Observations in Final Sample:
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Preliminary Report:
Preliminary Report URL:
Summary of Findings:
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Data Availability

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Other Materials

Survey Instrument Links or Contact:
Program Files:
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External Link:
External Link Description:
Description of Changes:

Study Stopped