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Study Overview

Impacts of Youths’ Participation in a Community Development Intervention During Conflict in Yemen on their Outlook and Trust in Others
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The evaluation will consider the impact of participation in the community development program on a range of labor outcomes (proficiency in acquired skills and knowledge related to nutrition and education, hours worked), welfare outcomes (income, household expenditure, subjective perceptions of wellbeing), and trust and social capital outcomes. The evaluation will adopt two approaches to collecting outcome data: (i) a questionnaire for youth participants to be filled in during the meetings at the branch offices before and after their participation in the fieldwork; and (ii) trust games, also conducted before and after the youth go to the field. The anticipated impact of skill transfer and earnings on youths’ labor and welfare outcomes is understandable. The focus on trust and social capital reflects the fact that the program is implemented across the country in the midst of a civil conflict. Conflict exposure has generally been shown in the literature to increase in-group trust and decrease out-group trust, however, we hypothesize that experience in community development can increase both local and national solidarity.

Registration Citation:

Kurdi, S., 2018. Impacts of Youths’ Participation in a Community Development Intervention During Conflict in Yemen on their Outlook and Trust in Others. Registry for International Development for Impact Evaluations (RIDIE). Available at: 10.23846/ridie146

Agriculture and Rural Development
Additional Keywords:
Trust, Youth
Secondary ID Number(s):

Principal Investigator(s)

Name of First PI:
Sikandra Kurdi
Name of Second PI:

Research Partner

Name of Partner Institution:
Yemen Social Fund for Development
Type of Organization:
Government agency (eg., statistics office, Ministry of Health)

Intervention Overview


The Cash for Services-Youth intervention sends rural youth trained in the Rural Advocates Working for Development program to train communities in community planned development. Working in groups of 3-4, they stay in villages in their home districts for about 50 days to facilitate community volunteer projects given in-kind support by the SFD. The youth train communities in planning small-scale infrastructure projects and applying for support for the more intensive interventions. In addition to supporting community development, the program provides work for university graduates from rural areas, both men and women, and has explicit objectives to invest youth in the process of development, make them aware of development challenges in Yemen, and to “strengthen the spirit of belonging among educated youth to their specific rural areas.”

Theory of Change:
Multiple Treatment Arms Evaluated?

Implementing Agency

Name of Organization:
Yemen Social Fund for Development
Type of Organization:
Public Sector, e.g. Government Agency or Ministry

Program Funder

Name of Organization:
UNDP through a World Bank Grant to Yemen
Type of Organization:
NGO (International)

Intervention Timing

Intervention or Program Started at time of Registration?
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Evaluation Method

Evaluation Method Overview

Primary (or First) Evaluation Method:
Difference in difference/fixed effects
Other (not Listed) Method:
Additional Evaluation Method (If Any):
Regression with controls
Other (not Listed) Method:

Method Details

Details of Evaluation Approach:

The impact is defined as the difference between the pre- and post-treatment levels of outcome indicators , controlling for participants characteristics as recorded in the baseline questionnaire, and also including a time trend to capture changes in average trust levels between the first and second series of games. A non-random subset of players who participated in the first set of games but had already participated in the intervention will be used to identify this time trend. Because there is potential for learning by doing in the trust games, the trust outcome is measured either pre-treatment or post-treatment, with assignment to the time of playing the trust game randomized.

Outcomes (Endpoints):

The main outcome variable is the trust differential between trust of players from a region with a similar alignment in the conflict (in-group) and trust of players from regions on opposite sides of the conflict (out-group) . We will also look at indices of trust in national institutions, optimism, and self-efficacy constructed using PCA from the questions included in the survey.

Unit of Analysis:

Primary: Participation in the program increases out-group trust, optimism, and confidence in national institutions Secondary: Conflict exposure is negatively correlated with trust, optimism and confidence in national institutions

Unit of Intervention or Assignment:
Number of Clusters in Sample:
Number of Individuals in Sample:
1,175 (anticipated)
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:
Treatment= 926, Control=249

Supplementary Files

Analysis Plan:
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Outcomes Data

Individual survey of youth participants collected prior to participation and after participation and data on trust game decisions during the trust games.
Data Already Collected?
Data Previously Used?
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Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
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Treatment Assignment Data

Participation or Assignment Information:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Previously Used?
Data Access:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
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Data Analysis

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Study Materials

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Registration Category

Registration Category:
Prospective, Category 1: Data for measuring impacts have not been collected

Completion Overview

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Preliminary Report:
Preliminary Report URL:
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Data Availability

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Other Materials

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Description of Changes:

Study Stopped