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Study Overview

Evaluation of UDAAN Programme in Rajasthan 2018-2020
Study is 3ie funded:
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Last Update Date:
Study Status:

Despite India’s significant progress in reducing child marriage and adolescent pregnancy in the last decade, as many as 27% of 20-24 year-old women were married before age 18 and 8% of 15-19 year-old women were already mothers or pregnant in 2015-16. In recognition of this challenge, IPE Global-led consortium of partners is implementing a multi-component intervention, UDAAN, that seeks to reduce adolescent fertility in Rajasthan, India. The programme strategies include: (1) strengthening scholarship delivery systems, raising awareness about scholarship schemes and mobilizing communities to shift traditional norms about girls’ education to improve girls’ enrolment and retention in secondary school; (2) implementation of a user-centred approach to the Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakarm (RKSK, the National Adolescent Health Programme) to strengthen SRH knowledge, attitudes and practices among adolescents; and (3) expansion of the contraceptive method mix for young women by supporting government’s efforts to introduce injectable contraceptives. The Population Council is conducting a multi-component, mixed-method evaluation to examine whether, how, and for whom UDAAN has an effect.

Registration Citation:

Santhya, K.G., 2019. Evaluation of UDAAN Programme in Rajasthan 2018-2020. Registry for International Development for Impact Evaluations (RIDIE). Available at: 10.23846/ridie172

Health, Nutrition, and Population
Public Sector Management
Social Protection
Additional Keywords:
Adolescents , sexual and reproductive health, girl’s secondary education, human-centred design, contraceptive use, teenage pregnancy, adolescent friendly health clinics
Secondary ID Number(s):
R-1708-02014, The Children’s Investment Fund Foundation UK (CIFF)

Principal Investigator(s)

Name of First PI:
K G Santhya
Population Council
Name of Second PI:

Study Sponsor

The Children’s Investment Fund Foundation UK
Study Sponsor Location:
United Kingdom

Research Partner

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Intervention Overview


UDAAN is a multi-component intervention to reduce adolescent fertility. Activities comprises strengthening the delivery of scholarship schemes for students in Classes 9 and 10; raising awareness about scholarship schemes; motivating parents and communities to value girls and their education; strengthening the capacity of the Ujala (Adolescent friendly health clinics) clinic counsellors; introducing an incentivised cadre of young people to deliver a school-based health education curriculum to students in Grades 9-12; providing telephonic counselling to adolescents by placing dedicated, trained male and female counselors with the government sponsored helpline services (104/108); developing capacity building programmes, including mobile-phone based training module for services providers for providing injectable contraceptive services, developing a digitized system for tracking injectable contraceptive users and engaging community counselors to reach out to younger women on a pilot basis with injectable contraceptives.

Theory of Change:

UDAAN is designed to reduce adolescent pregnancy, drawing on multiple, inter-connected pathways, and is grounded on a number of evidence-based assumptions. First, it assumes that activities, targeted at educational system, parents and communities, to keep girls in secondary school can improve their enrolment and retention in secondary schools. Second, it assumes that exposing school-going adolescents to a health curriculum and improving adolescent health services, using principles of human-centred design, can improve adolescents’ awareness, attitudes and practices related to sexual and reproductive health matters. Third, expanding contraceptive method-mix and choices for young women can help them adopt contraceptives to delay first pregnancy and space births. Together, these strategies can contribute to delaying age at marriage, improving girls’ agency, delaying age at first pregnancy and increasing birth spacing, and ultimately, reducing adolescent pregnancies. Please refer to the supplementary files for more details on the theory of change.

Multiple Treatment Arms Evaluated?

Implementing Agency

Name of Organization:
IPE Global-led consortium of partners; partners include The Youth Parliament Foundation, Manjari Foundation, Pathfinder International
Type of Organization:
Private for profit organization

Program Funder

Name of Organization:
The Children's Investment Fund Foundation UK
Type of Organization:

Intervention Timing

Intervention or Program Started at time of Registration?
Start Date:
End Date:
Evaluation Method

Evaluation Method Overview

Primary (or First) Evaluation Method:
Regression with controls
Other (not Listed) Method:
Additional Evaluation Method (If Any):
Other (specify)
Other (not Listed) Method:
Time-trend analysis, value for money analysis, system dynamics modelling and process evaluation

Method Details

Details of Evaluation Approach:

We will use a mixed-method evaluation design. The effect of UDAAN on girls’ enrollment and retention in secondary schools will be examined by comparing changes in girls’ enrollment and retention in intervention districts over the intervention period with changes in two comparable, non-intervention districts, using Unified District Information System for Education (U-DISE) data. UDAAN’s effect on awareness, attitudes and service utilisation related to sexual and reproductive health matters among unmarried adolescent girls and boys will be assessed, using a quasi-experimental design with panel surveys at baseline and endline, supplemented by repeated in-depth interviews with counsellors in adolescent friendly health clinics and repeated mystery client visits to those clinics. Finally, UDAAN’s effect on contraceptive use and the method mix among young women will be examined through time-trend analysis, using secondary data at the district and state-level, drawing on publicly accessible, de-identified data on contraceptive practices.

Outcomes (Endpoints):

The primary outcomes include improvements in sexual and reproductive knowledge, attitudes and practices among adolescent boys and girls; increase in girls’ enrollment in secondary education and their completion of Grade 10; and increase in contraceptive uptake by married adolescent girls

Unit of Analysis:

Improving scholarship disbursement and raising awareness among parents and community members about the importance of girls’ education may lead to increase in in girls’ enrollment and secondary school completion. Exposing adolescents to SRH education curriculum and improving the quality of counselling services at the adolescent friendly health clinics may improve adolescents’ awareness, attitudes and service utilization related to sexual and reproductive health matters. Strengthening the capacity of services providers for providing injectable contraceptive services, developing a digitized system for tracking injectable contraceptive users and engaging community counsellors to reach out to younger women can contribute to increased contraceptive uptake.

Unit of Intervention or Assignment:
individuals, schools, clinics and communities
Number of Clusters in Sample:
For hypothesis 1, two districts each in intervention and comparison groups. For hypothesis 2, ten schools each from intervention and comparison groups.
Number of Individuals in Sample:
Baseline and endline survey- Unmarried boys-454 and Unmarried girls- 536, • 24 visits by mystery clients to Ujala clinics; 6 per clinic and two clinics in each arms. IDIs with 8 counsellors.
Size of Treatment, Control, or Comparison Subsamples:
Survey-Unmarried boys-226 from intervention group and 228 from control group) and unmarried girls- 266 from intervention group and 270 from control group).

Supplementary Files

Analysis Plan:
Other Documents:
UDAAN IRB Protocol: UDAAN IRB Protocol-_16th Oct. 2018.docx
Baseline_ Male survey tool: CIFF BL_Male_Survey tool.docx
Baseline_Female survey tool: CIFF BL_Female _Survey tool.docx

Outcomes Data

We will use multiple data sets to evaluate UDAAN - panel survey data from school-going, unmarried boys and girls aged 15-19 from intervention and comparison schools collected prior to the launch of the intervention and its conclusion by the study team, publicly accessible Unified District Information System for Education data on schools in India, the National Family Health Survey-4 , Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 Survey, and the Health Management Information System data
Data Already Collected?
Data Previously Used?
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Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
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Treatment Assignment Data

Participation or Assignment Information:
Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
Data Previously Used?
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Data Obtained by the Study Researchers?
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Approval Status:

Data Analysis

Data Analysis Status:

Study Materials

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Registration Category

Registration Category:
Prospective, Category 1: Data for measuring impacts have not been collected

Completion Overview

Intervention Completion Date:
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Unit of Analysis:
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Preliminary Report:
Preliminary Report URL:
Summary of Findings:
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Data Availability

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Other Materials

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Program Files:
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Description of Changes:

Study Stopped